The territory of San Marino (61 sq. Km) has the shape of an irregular quadrilateral mainly hilly with the center in the middle Monte Titano - altitude 750 meters and distance as the crow flies 10 km. from the Adriatic sea.
It is surrounded for the whole extent of its borders by two Italian regions, namely from Emilia Romagna to the north-east and the Marche-Montefeltro to the southwest.
The ancient institution of the Arengo (originally the meeting of all heads of families) later delegated its power to the Great and General Council; today the Arengo is the same electoral body.
In Arengo, currently convened twice a year (the Sunday following the inauguration of the Captains Regents), San Marino citizens have the right to submit proposals and requests of public interest to the Great and General Council.
Legislative power is exercised by the Great and General Council, which consists of 60 members elected by citizenship every 5 years.
In particular, it approves the financial statements and appoints the Captains Regent, Heads of State and of the Executive, who exercise their office for 6 months (the Investiture ceremony of the Captains Regent takes place on the 1 ° April and the 1 ° October of each year).
The executive power (Government) is exercised by the Congress of State, composed of State Secretaries (Ministers).
The territory of San Marino is divided into nine Castles that correspond to the old parish circumscriptions of the Republic.
Every Castle it is administered by a junta presided over by a captain, elected every five years.
The Council of XII, elected by the Great and General Council for the duration of the legislature, is a judicial and administrative justice body with the function of a Court of III instance.
Two Statutory Auditors represent the State in court and in financial or patrimonial actions or disputes.
La Republic of San Marinodespite being a neutral state whose vocation to peace is universally recognized, it has Military Corps Voluntary Uniforms, representing the independence of the state (there is no compulsory military service, but all citizens from 16 to 55 years can be enrolled, in particular contingencies, in defense of the state) and more specifically:
- La Uniformed Company of the Militia participates in official ceremonies and collaborates in the order service in particular contingencies;
- La Council Guard it is the escort of honor of the Captains Regent and of the Great and General Council;
- La Guardia di Rocca it is equipped with artillery, serves the Palazzo Pubblico and the frontier barracks;
- La Gendarmerie it is the police force that has the task of supervising and protecting order in the country;
- Il Body of the Civil Police, made up of San Marino, has tasks of control, protection and prevention in commercial, tourist, ration and road traffic.
The Euro is commonly used.
Since 1972 San Marino, after an interruption of 34 years, has returned to beat their own currency, coining various values of San Marino liras much sought after by collectors.
Relevant is the resumption of the coinage of gold coins, from the 1974, with legal tender exclusively within the territory.
Flag and emblem
The flag of San Marino is white and blue with the emblem of the Republic at the center.
The emblem is composed of a shield in which three mountains and three feathered towers are depicted.
For external ornament it bears two branches of green color, tied at the bottom by a ribbon with the motto "Libertas" and, at the top, a crown symbol of Sovereignty.
Formalities of the border
No border or customs formalities.
I castles they are the administrative units in which the Republic of San Marino is divided.
In ancient times, the territory of the Republic of San Marino it was divided into ten gualdarie with the aim of protecting the natural heritage, rural properties and maintaining public order.
In 1463, after the annexation of the cities of Serravalle, Montegiardino and Faetano, the "Malraesta di Rimini" were called for the first time "castra subdita" (subject places) from which the word castle was given different administrative autonomies.
Each of the three Castles was governed by a Captain appointed by the Great and General Council.
From 1463 to 1925 San Marino was then divided into four castles (Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Faetano e Serravalle) and in five parishes o gualdarie (City of San Marino, Living Water, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano).
With the law 16 March 1925 n. 10 San Marino was divided into five zones, corresponding more or less with the parishes, each of which takes its name from the largest center, called precisely Castle with all headed by a Captain of the Castle appointed by the Great and General Council (called the Prince Council and Sovereign at the time).
With the law 17 November 1945 n. 66 the Capitano di Castello is flanked by a Castle Council, both appointed by the Great and General Council.
With the 30 November 1979 law n. 75 the appointment of the Captain of Castello and of the Giunta di Castello becomes universal suffrage.
With the latest change with the 24 February 1994 n.22 law each castle is governed by one Giunta di Castello, elected by the residents for five years and composed of 9 members for the Castles with more than 2.000 inhabitants and 7 for the smaller ones.
The Giunte are all presided over by a Captain of the Castle.
Among the skills of the Castles there are:
- management of local public services
- the promotion of cultural, recreational or social activities
- the design and implementation of public works
The historic center is a show of colors and lights, there is no street, district, square that has no shops with goods of all kinds: from traditional souvenirs to the most refined jewel.
Typical the ceramic production with decorations that recall the symbols of San Marino history.
Original memories philatelic and numismatic issues, appreciated all over the world, the Republic also coins its euro.
Leather goods, armories, jewelers, perfumeries, gift shops, Hi-Fi, clothing, souvenirs, where we often practice Tax free, create a large outdoor shopping mall.
During the year San Marino proposes numerous events that here find a suggestive frame.
Music events, historical re-enactments, art exhibitions, exhibitions, sporting events, end-of-year parties, as well as animations of various kinds, give life to a dense calendar of events to cheer guests.
Last but not least, the evocative institutional ceremonies that evoke the millenarian history of the small Republic.
Food & wine
Extra virgin olive oil, wine, cheeses and meats of the "Land of San Marino" consortium, are the primary ingredients used by the local catering that is of Romagna gastronomic tradition.
The piadina accompanies dishes based on meat and vegetables, as well as homemade pasta never fails in the menus of taverns and restaurants in the historic center and beyond.