Milan (Lombardy) is a town of 1.351.562 inhabitants, located 122 meters above sea level in the homonymous province, its territory covers an area of 182,10 sq km.
Art and history in Milan
Milan it is an Italian city capital of the Lombardy region, of the homonymous metropolitan city, and center of one of the most populated metropolitan areas of Europe.
Founded by a Celtic tribe belonging to the culture of Golasecca at the beginning of the 6th century BC, it was conquered by the Romans in 222 BC, who handed down its name with the Mediolanum form, besides remembering the name of the founder, Belloveso.
With the passing of the centuries it increased its importance until it became capital of the Western Roman Empire, in which period the famous "was promulgated"edict of Milan ", which granted to all citizens, therefore also to Christians, the freedom to honor their own deities.
At the forefront of the struggle against the Emperor in the communal age, it became the first lordship to be elevated to ducal dignity at the end of the XIV century, remaining at the center of the political and cultural life of Renaissance Italy.
At the beginning of the 16th century it lost its independence in favor of the Spanish Empire, to pass, almost two centuries later, under the Austrian crown: thanks to the Habsburg policies, Milan became one of the main centers of Italian enlightenment.
Capital of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, after the restoration it was one of the most active centers of the Risorgimento until it entered the Kingdom of Italy.
Milan the most European among all Italian cities, the fashion capital always oriented to the future ...
Milan is the most European and most international city in Italy, linked to its history as an important economic and industrial center.
The frenetic rhythms underline the life and times of the city, but should not be misleading, in its infinite urban space, will surprise visitors with its parks, its historical corners, monuments and art to witness its cultural vocation.
Main economic and financial center of the peninsula
Milan it led its industrial development, setting up the "Industrial Triangle" with Turin and Genoa, especially during the years of the economic boom when industrial and urban development also involved the neighboring cities, creating the vast metropolitan area of Milan.
In the cultural field, Milan is the main Italian publishing center and is at the top of the world music circuit thanks to lyric season of the "Teatro alla Scala" and his long opera tradition.
Milan is also among the main European exhibition centers and industrial design and is considered one of the four world capitals of fashion.
Since the 50 years, Milan has never lost its glamorous vocation and style.
And the international fashion center, and everything revolves around the world through stylists, designers and fashion houses that have brought Italian creativity and style to the world.
La Milan Fashion it is an essential combination of the city - together with Paris and New York - the Fashion Week milanese It is one of the three events not to be missed and concerns the world of fashion.
Together with Florence and Rome, Milan holds the Made in Italy, in particular fashion and luxury, with institutions, foundations and cultural circuits, and with fashion and design schools, internationally renowned.
The tour continues with the Shopping, looking for trends and style of the city, in front of boutiques and big names along the shopping streets: Via Montenapoleone, Via della Spiga and Corso Vittorio Emanuele.
Milan at night, continues in Brera in the most famous entertainment places along the "ships".
Monuments and places of interest
Much of the artistic and architectural heritage of Milan It is in the Old Town, which owes its current appearance to numerous urban changes carried out between the unification of Italy and the first post-war period.
The symbol of the city is the Cathedral of Santa Maria Nascente, more known by the name of Milan Cathedral, located in the homonymous square, the center of the economic and cultural life of the city.
The eighteenth century is a short distance away Teatro alla Scala, one of the most famous lyric theaters in the world.
To connect Piazza della Scala e Piazza del Duomo and the Vittorio Emanuele II gallery, a passage covered with eclectic style iron and glass structures.
Another symbol of Milan is the Castello Sforzesco, originally conceived as an exclusively military structure, it was then redesigned as an elegant court for the lords of the city.
Not far away are the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio, considered the second most important church in the city, and the complex hosting the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie and the "Cenacolo "by Leonardo Da Vinci, declared UNESCO.
Another site of notable artistic interest is the Monumental cemetery, which houses the tombs of the most illustrious Milanese citizens; more modern realization can be found Central Station, built in a style that combines the majesty of fascist structures with Art Nouveau decorations, and the Giuseppe Meazza stadium, called "La Scala del calcio".
The city is also rich in museums and art galleries; the most famous is certainly the Brera 's picture gallery that together with Poldi Pezzoli museum and Ambrosiana art gallery constitutes the network of the most famous Milanese art galleries.
Another notable museum circuit is formed by "Milanese museum houses ".
The Milan Triennale, home to exhibitions of modern art, form with "CAP "the exhibition venues for modern art in Milan.
To these must be added the scientific museums, the Planetarium of Milan and Brera astronomical observatoryas well as the dozens of minor museums, like the museums of the Castello Sforzesco.
Milan is rich in ancient churches of great importance, among which the most famous is certainly the Duomo, a Gothic cathedral that has become a symbol of the city in the world.
The Lombard capital, however, houses many other religious buildings of great historical and artistic value, and among these in particular the four are worth mentioning early Christian basilicas:
- Ambrose, considered to be the best example of Lombard Romanesque architecture, is certainly one of the oldest monuments of Christian art.
- the Basilica of San Lorenzo, a Byzantine central building also known for its proximity to the famous columns.
- San Nazaro e San Simpliciano, linked like the previous ones to the figure of bishop Ambrogio.
The historical center of Milan also hosts the church of San Maurizio at the Monastero Maggiore, containing a famous cycle of frescoes by authors such as Bernardino Luini and Simone Peterzano such as to be called "the Lombard sistine chapel", the Church of Sant'Antonio Abate, rebuilt in the late sixteenth century according to the canons of the Counter-Reformation and seat of works by Giulio Cesare Procaccini and Cerano; the baroque Church of St. Alexander on the other hand, it overlooks one of the best-preserved squares in Milan before the post-war reconstruction interventions.
La church of San Giuseppe, Not far from Teatro alla Scala, is considered the first genuinely baroque building in the city, while Santa Maria near San Satiro remains famous for the fake choir designed by Bramante through the "trompe-l'œil" technique; they are to be remembered St. Mark's Church and Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio, which hosts the Portinari chapel, considered one of the masterpieces of the Lombard Renaissance.
Famous throughout the world is the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, included with the "Last Supper "UNESCO list of world heritage sites.
Externally to the urban area there are two important monastic complexes: the Certosa di Garegnano with its important frescoes by Simone Peterzano and la Abbey of Clairvaux, one of the first examples of Gothic in Italy.
Moreover, the artistic importance is of great artistic importance Monumental cemetery with his own family, rich in funeral sculptures of various ages and styles.
The center of Milan is full of palaces, built especially in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as private homes of major families in the city; the architectural styles represented in the city center are very many, from the neo-Gothic, baroque and eclectic to the liberty and post-war rationalism.
The history of Milanese civil buildings, however, extends to the present day, including the numerous modern architectures that characterize the most innovative areas of the city.
Milan it has never had a center of civil power adequate to its importance: this fact is mainly due to the lack of a court within the city since the sixteenth century, when independence was lost.
In fact, among the public buildings, only the medieval must be mentioned Palazzo della Ragione (inserted in the Piazza Mercanti complex) and the next Royal Palace, for centuries representative seat of the city government; after the construction of the Castello Sforzesco, evidently listed among the military architectures, Milan no longer gave birth to a public design building up to 2010, when it was inaugurated Palazzo Lombardia.
The private residences had greater importance, among which they must be remembered Palazzo Marino (now seat of the Municipal Administration), Palazzo Litta, Palazzo Belgioioso.
Whole neighborhoods, like the one around via Monte Napoleone o a Corso Venezia, are composed of noble palaces in neoclassical style.
Le walls of Milan they have evolved over the years with the city: from the first Roman nucleus, we move on to the medieval walls, ending with the last outer belt, better known as "Spanish walls ".
Only ruins remain of the Roman walls; of the medieval walls remain rare rarely discovered that survived the conversion of the walls into houses once the Spanish walls were built, at the time of their construction the largest in Europe, largely demolished between the end of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the Twentieth century for road conditions.
In addition to some sections of the ancient Spanish walls, about a kilometer in total, the walls are some of the urban doors on medieval wall, as New door e Porta Ticinese, while on the outer walls the doors were almost all preserved: from the mannerist Porta Romana, the remainder go back to the Austrian arrangement of the neoclassical bastions.
The most impressive military architecture is the Castello Sforzesco, military architecture converted in the Renaissance a elegant court of the Dukes of Milan: the fortress was still among the largest of the time, so much so that the castle was never conquered in battle, but every time thanks to the betrayal of the castellan.
Used exclusively as a military barracks by foreign governments, fu restored and transformed in the late nineteenth century into a large museum complex, and adorned by the gardens of the homonymous square and the Sempione Park.
Three are i historic urban parks of the cityI Public gardens (today dedicated to Indro Montanelli), the Parco Sempione and the Ravizza Park.
Until the thirties of the twentieth century, the old town was full of private gardens, now very small and replaced by residential subdivisions.
Other medium-sized urban parks, of more recent construction, are the Park of the Basilicas, Don Giussani Park, Vittorio Formentano Park.
Larger parks are located outside the built area: the Lambro Park, Forlanini Park, Cave Park, the "Boscoincittà " and the Park of Trenno.
Due to its particularity, we report the "Monte Stella ", obtained from the rubble of the buildings bombed in the Second World War.
In the northern area of the municipal territory is placed the North Park, supra-municipal.
A large part of the territory, to the east, south and west, is instead included in the South Milan agricultural park, a vast area of naturalistic and agricultural character that surrounds the city on three sides.
East of the city, at Linate Airport, in the territory of the Municipalities of Segrate and Peschiera Borromeo, is located Idroscalo, a vast artificial basin excavated in the 1928-1930 for ditching and taking off of seaplanes, and already converted into the 1934 area for competitions and sports activities and public bathing use.
Very popular in the summer months, Idroscalo it is a bit "the sea of the Milanese".
During the year the area is still used for nautical sports events, such as boating, motorboating o water ski.
In the rankings of the most visited cities in the world in the 2016 Milan confirms its first place.
According to a list by number of visitors, tourists and workers, Milan stands at 7,7 million in attendance, as 15ª most visited city, 7ª in Europe and 2ª in Italy, just after Rome.
According to a ranking based on the "international tourist arrivals", Milan at the 24 position follows Rome at the 14.
Its appeal is given by its being an important economic center, publishing, research, fashion and design and its own artistic heritage which mixes with modernity: monuments, churches, historic buildings, skyscrapers, shopping, fashion and events of various kinds contribute to the international vocation of the metropolis.
Milan is also positioned about 50 km from the large lakes (Lake Como, Lake Maggiore, Lugano), whose scenic beauty enjoys world renown.
Historically, the great names of Italian romantic music and literature (including Rossini, Bellini, Parini, Manzoni, Verdi, etc.) used to stay on the lakes during their stay in Milan, often guests in the villas of the Milanese nobles, thus contributing to the development of a cultural tourism that from the 700 linked the big city to the nearby natural beauties.
Text taken from:
- Wikipedia (Creative Commons)
- Tourist brochures