Rome (Lazio) is a partially mountainous coastal town of 2.873.494 inhabitants, located 20 meters above sea level in the homonymous province, its territory covers an area of 1.307,70 sq km.
Rome is the capital of the Italian Republic, as well as capital of the province of Rome and the Lazio region; by virtue of its status as capital, administratively it is a special town.
By definition, is called the City, and the Eternal City.
The city's motto is SPQR, Senatus Populus Que Romanus in Latin (the Senate and the Roman People), which in ancient times indicating the two classes that were the foundation of Roman society, those of the patricians and the plebeians.
It is the most populous of Italy, while 1287,36 square kilometers is the largest municipality in Italy and among the major European capitals for the territory amplitude.
Founded according to tradition the April 21 753 BC, during its three millennia of history was the first great metropolis of humanity, the heart of one of the most important ancient civilizations, which influenced the society, culture, language, literature , art, architecture, philosophy, religion, law and customs of the following centuries.
Birthplace of the Latin language, was the capital of the Roman Empire, which extended its dominion over the entire Mediterranean basin and much of Europe, the Papal States, subject to the temporal power of the popes, and the Kingdom of Italy ( from 1871).
In the Western art world it has a situation of eminence that develops almost uninterruptedly since 200 1700 BC to advanced.
Its historic center bounded by the perimeter of the Aurelian walls, overlapping testimonies of almost three millennia, is an expression of the historical, artistic and cultural heritage of Europe and the Western world, in 1980, along with extraterritorial properties of the Holy See in the city and the Basilica of St. Paul outside the walls, was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Rome, the heart of Catholic Christianity, is the only city in the world to host an internal entire state, the enclave of Vatican City: for this reason it is often called the capital of two states.
The municipality is large, having incorporated areas abandoned for centuries, for the most part swampy and unsuitable for agriculture and not belonging to any municipality.
Rome administers an area that is large in size, roughly, as the sum of the municipalities of Milan, Naples, Turin, Palermo, Genoa, Bologna, Florence, Bari and Catania, and is superior to that of municipalities like New York , Berlin, Madrid and Paris.
The population density is very high, due to the presence of green areas scattered in the municipality: Rome is unique in the Western world to the vastness of the campaign that crowns the city and the interpenetration between town and country.
With about 52000 hectares of agricultural areas, Rome is the greenest town in Europe.
In addition to the historic villas there are many more green areas, as well as land devoted to agriculture in peripheral areas.
The protected areas covering a total 40000 hectares and are a recent fact, began with the establishment of the Pineto Regional Park in 1987 and the Appia ancient the following year; 1997 was born in the regional body Romanatura, which greatly increased the number of protected areas.
The vast rural area, partly flat and partly hilly, which extends around the city of Rome is defined agro romano, which differs from the Roman countryside as contained in the municipal area.
Falling within some regional parks and nature reserves municipality of Rome, including the Regional Park of Appia Antica, the nature reserve Marcigliana, the nature reserve of Decima-Malafede, the nature reserve Roman coastline, the nature reserve Valle Aniene, the nature reserve dell'Insugherata and the nature reserve of Monte Mario and marine protected area Tor Paterno Shoals.
With the new plan, Roma tend to increase the total area destined to green until it is two-thirds of the city.
Specific green areas are bound to the botanical garden and the municipal rose garden.
Along the river is the urban oasis run by the WWF.
Rome is also the Italian city with the highest number of neighboring municipalities: 29 most common Italian enclave of Vatican City, with a total of 30 neighboring territories.
The territory of Rome, has several natural landscapes and environmental characteristics: some of mountains and hills (including historic seven hills), the low-lying areas, the Tiber River and its tributaries, the Marrane, the lakes of Bracciano and Martignano and artificial , river island (Isola Tiberina), the sandy coast of Lido di Ostia, the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The central core and the old town is made up of the historic seven hills: Palatine, Aventine, Capitoline, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline and Celio.
The city also includes other findings, including Monte Mario, Mount Antenna Mount Brianzo, upstream of Joys, Mount Giordano, the Gianicolo, the Pincio, the mountains Parioli, Mount Savelli, sacred mountain and Mount Verde.
The city enjoys a typical Mediterranean climate, mild and comfortable in the spring and autumn periods.
The wettest seasons are spring and autumn, mainly in the months of November and April.
Summer is hot, humid and potentially drought, while winter is generally mild and rainy, but with considerable and sudden surges of cold, snowy winters and rare occurrences of a certain size.
In general, the weather is often windy, with a prevalence of northerly winds, such as the north and north-east, and west, as the mistral, the southwest wind and the west wind, so named because it came from the area to the west of the city.
For its size of sites and archaeological finds, Rome is a real open-air museum.
The cradle of the history of Rome's Palatine Hill, beneath which lie the Roman Forum, the Imperial Forum and Trajan's markets, the centers of political, economic, religious and social life of the ancient world.
Not far away is the Colosseum, the symbolic monument of ancient Rome; the nearby Opium Hill are the remains of the Domus Aurea, the Golden House of Nero.
Proceeding towards the Tiber from Piazza Venezia are the Balbi Crypt (part of the ancient theater of Balbus), the Theatre of Marcellus with the temples of the Sant'Omobono and the sacred area of Torre Argentina (where he was killed Caesar).
Other archaeological sites in the city include the underground Basilica of Porta Maggiore, the Baths of Caracalla, the mitreo of San Clemente, the Auditorium of Maecenas and the Roman houses of the Celio, below the Basilica of Saints John and Paul.
Outside the town, are the ruins of Ostia and the tomb of Cecilia Metella, the Castrum Caetani, the tomb of the Scipios and the villa of the Quintilii Appia Antica, the villa of Livia at Prima Porta, the archaeological site of Veii , with the Etruscan sanctuary of Apollo and the park of the Tombs of the Via Latina.
In Rome, the museum offer is vast in quantity and quality: the museums contain culture, art and sculpture treasures accumulated in the city over the centuries.
The Vatican museums (more than four million visitors each year), the Capitoline museums (the oldest public museum in the world), the Borghese Gallery to the numerous archaeological museums, and yet Colonna Gallery, Doria Pamphili Gallery, the National Roman Museum, national Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia, the Palazzo delle Esposizioni, the Barraco Museum, the Napoleonic Museum in Rome, the national modern art Gallery, contemporary and modern MACRO and MAXXI.
In The Hall only (Rome Centro Storico) are 103 museums (including 70 33 municipal and state), and the whole town has 270 museums.
The main squares of Rome, born during the Renaissance and the Baroque period, tend to witness the creative capacity of an ideal of harmonious living between humanistic conception and supernatural exaltation.
Among the most famous squares in Rome, there are the Spanish Steps, Piazza Navona, Piazza del Popolo, Piazza della Repubblica, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Colonna, Piazza Farnese, Torre Argentina, Campo de 'Fiori and Piazza San Pietro.
Among the main streets of the city center, via del Corso, Via del Babuino and Via di Ripetta, which form the Trident; Via dei Fori Imperiali, already off the Empire; Via Veneto, made famous in the sixties; Via dei Condotti, the main shopping street; Via Margutta, the street of artists; Via Nazionale, made after the unit; Via della Conciliazione, which connects the Italian State with the Vatican City.
Rome is the city that preserves the highest number of obelisks, many dating back to the imperial age, when obelisks were transported directly from Egypt, while others were built by the Romans, who used the same granite of the Egyptians. Most of them have been made to restore by Pope Sixtus V.
Since ancient times, streets, squares and buildings of Rome are decorated with statues of various kinds (equestrian statues standing, seated statues, busts).
Formerly attributed to them was almost a mystical power, can protect the Roman people and represent the assembly of the gods. Details and features are the six talking statues (including Pasquino and the statue of Baboon), through which the people, in a satirical and poignant way, expressed his displeasure towards those who held power in the city.
In Rome, over the centuries, it was erected numerous columns, a commemorative purpose; among the remaining 14 there are the Column of Marcus Aurelius and the column of Trajan.
Among the main colonnade of the city, the best known is probably the one made by Bernini in the seventeenth century.
The Italian text is taken from: Wikipedia