Bologna (Emilia Romagna - Italy)
Bologna is a common part of the mountain 388.367 inhabitants, located 54 meters above sea level in the homonymous province, its territory covers an area of 140,70 sq km.
Bologna is a common Italian capital of the metropolitan city, which in turn is the capital of Emilia-Romagna region.
Ancient university town, home to many students who animate the cultural and social life.
Known for its towers and its long arcades, it has a well-preserved historical center, among the largest in Italy.
The city, whose first settlements date back to at least the first millennium BC, was an important urban center, first under the Etruscans and the Celts, then under the Romans, then again in the Middle Ages as a free commune.
Northern capital of the Papal States since the sixteenth century, played a key role during the Risorgimento and, during World War II, was an important center of resistance.
Bologna is an important node of road and rail communications in northern Italy, in an area where they reside important mechanical industries, electronics and food.
It is home to prestigious cultural institutions, economic and political, and one of the most advanced exhibition centers in Europe.
Bologna is known in popular culture as "oily" (for cooking), "the learned" (for college) and "red" (for the color of the bricks of the old town buildings, though often the adjective It refers to the political "red" thought spread among the city's population).
In 2000 Bologna was European Capital of Culture, while in 2006 was given the city the recognition by UNESCO Creative City of Music, the first in Italy, the second in Europe after Seville.
The city actively participates in two "networks" proposed by UNESCO: the "Network of creative cities" and the "Network of European cities against racism and xenophobia."
In 2008 the "Zecchino d'Oro" of the Antoniano of Bologna has become "UNESCO Heritage for a culture of peace", the first TV broadcast in the world to receive recognition of this type.
In 1988 in Bologna was held the Biennale of Young Artists from Europe and the Mediterranean, considered the most important Mediterranean event focused on young creativity.
Many cultural institutions and universities are located in the "Factory of the Arts", an area recently recovered in the former "Tobacco Factory" and the former slaughterhouse.
The University of Bologna is considered the oldest university in the Western world.
The date of its foundation has been set conventionally in the year 1088 by a commission chaired by Carducci.
The life of the city and the university are intimately connected since the Middle Ages, making merit the label "Bologna the learned".
It is divided into eleven schools and thirty-three Departments.
According to the world ranking of universities QS World University Rankings, the University of Bologna it is the first Italian universities and 182ª worldwide.
It also appears to be the better choice Italian universities by foreign students of the "Erasmus Project"
The high number of students from all over Italy and the world, has a major impact on city life.
While this influx helps to liven up significantly a historic center (where the average age of the residents would be otherwise very high), on the other hand, local governments are often confronted with problems of public order and dirt related to 'animated night life of the university area.
In Bologna there are over a hundred libraries, including 4 municipal, neighborhood and more than 11 70 university, located in different areas of the city.
Among the most famous and popular are the Municipal Library dell'Archiginnasio (former home of the University) and the Biblioteca Sala Borsa (inaugurated in 2001).
The best-stocked with over 1.300.000 volumes, is the University Library in Bologna.
Of great interest, and of supreme importance in the national and European level, is also the Cineteca di Bologna, the municipal institution dedicated to film and filmography.
There are also several thematic libraries such as the one about the history of the twentieth century of the Historical Parri Emilia-Romagna, one of the Gramsci, the Italian Women's Library, the library of the International Museum of Music, the newspaper library library of Mambo and many others.
Bologna has forty museums in which, alongside the permanent collections, temporary exhibitions are organized.
The main civic museums are: the municipal collections of art, the Museo Civico Archeologico, the medieval Town Museum, the National Art Gallery of Bologna, Morandi Museum, the Palazzo Davia Bargellini, the Museum of Industrial Heritage in Bologna , MAMbo (Bologna Museum of modern art) and the international Museum and library of music.
The University has its museums, almost one for every faculty, among which the Palazzo Poggi Museum (comprising several natural history collections, anatomy and obstetrics, physics and chemistry, military architecture, geography and marine, and oriental art).
Added to these are the religious museums.
More recently established are the Exhibition Hall at Palazzo Fava (opened in 2011), the Museum of the History of Bologna at Palazzo Pepoli (in 2012) and MAST. Manufacture of Arts, Experimentation and Technology (in 2013).
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