Pompeii (Campania - Italy)
Tourist area Vesuvian area
Pompeii is a municipality of 25.196 inhabitants, located at 14 meters slm in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Its territory covers an area of 12,40 sq. km.
Pompeii It is an Italian town of province of Naples in Campania.
Pompeii, in Latin Pompeii, has origins as ancient as those of Rome: a migration of inhabitants from the Sarno Valley, descended from the legendary Pelasgi, formed a primitive settlement at the foot of Vesuvius: perhaps not a real village, more likely a small conglomerate at the intersection of three important roads, traced in historical times by the roads coming from Cuma, Nola, Stabia and from Nocera.
Obligatory passage between north and south, Pompeii became prey to the powerful neighboring states. It was conquered for the first time from the colony of Cuma between the 525 and 474 BC
Strabo reports that Pompeii was united to the twelve (the set of the twelve most important Etruscan cities) under the control of Nuvkrinum, news that the light of recent excavations becomes more reliable.
In the temple of Apollo and at the Baths Stabiane were found several fragments of bucchero, some with inscriptions nucerine graphite; always in the Spa area also it came to light a sixth century BC necropolis
The first traces of an important center date back to the sixth century BC, although in this period the city, still quite small, it still seems an aggregation of buildings rather messy and spontaneous.
The battle lost by the Etruscans in the waters in front of Cuma against Cumans and Syracusans (mid-fifth century BC) brought Pompeii under the hegemony of the Sunnis.
The city joined the League of Nuceria, a confederation that included Nuceria Alfaterna, Herculaneum, Stabiae and Sorrento, and used the Nucerino alphabet that was based on that greek and the Etruscan.
Probably dates from this period, the fortification of the entire plateau with a circle of walls of tufa, which contained more than sixty hectares, although the city itself was less than ten hectares of extension.
It was hostile to the Romans during the Samnite wars.
Once defeated, it became an ally of Rome as a member of the City, preserving linguistic and institutional autonomy.
It's the fourth century BC the first regular urban layout of the city, around the 300 BC, was fitted with a new fortification in Sarno limestone.
During the Second Punic War Pompeii, still under the control of Nuceria Alfaterna, he remained faithful to Rome as opposed to Capua and many other cities bells, but was able to retain partial independence.
In the second century BC the intensive cultivation of the land and the consequent massive export of oil and wine they brought wealth and a higher standard of living: enough to remember the merit of some buildings and their luxurious furnishings.
The House of the Faun, for example, can rival in size (almost 3000 m & sup2;) even with the most famous Hellenistic royal residences.
At the outbreak of the Social War (91 BC), Pompeii was hostile to Rome, but it was impossible to resist its military strength: nell'89 BC Silla, after capitulate Stabia, he went to Pompeii, who attempted a vigorous defense by reinforcing the walls towns and using the aid of a group of Celts led by Lucio Cluenzio.
Any attempt at resistance proved futile, and soon the city fell, but thanks to belonging to Nuceria alloy, obtained Roman citizenship and was inserted into the Gens Menenia.
Nell'80 BC entered the orbit of Rome, Sulla moved a group of veterans in Cologne Venerea Pompeianorum Sillana.
The allocation of land to the veterans came to the detriment of the gentes that had most bitterly opposed Sulla.
Nevertheless, the political and military events did not affect in a decisive way on the welfare and commercial sull'intraprendenza Pompeians, especially when the export of wines from Campania that interested areas also very remote.
For the healthy climate and the beauty of the landscape the city and its surroundings also they formed a nice resort for some wealthy Romans, and even Cicero had his own bottom.
The sources are quite stingy of news about life in Pompeii in the first imperial age.
Only Tacitus recalls the brawl between Nucerini Pompeians and the 59 AD amphitheater in Pompeii, which prompted the consuls for ten years to prohibit all forms of show in the arena.
The February 5 62 d. C. the city was then hit by a strong earthquake.
Eruption of AD 79
In the summer of 79 AD (the first year of the reign of Titus, see. Dio Cassius V) Pompeii was buried under a rain of ash and lapilli (and not lava, as is often reported) that, except a few hours interval , fell uninterrupted up to form a layer of more than three meters.
At the time of the eruption many buildings were under reconstruction because of an earthquake that occurred a few days before, and not for that of 62 (as previously believed), whose damage had already been completely repaired.
The date of this eruption is known to us on the basis of a letter of Pliny the Younger, and should match the 24 August.
However, not all scholars agree, also because of this letter there is not the original, but there are only successive transcripts. In some we speak of the ninth day before the Kalends of November, corresponding to 24 October.
Other clues come from the discovery of nuts, such as walnuts and figs, or of rowanberry, typical autumnal fruit, but the proof perhaps more important is the discovery of a silver coin that says IMPXV, or the fifteenth cheer of Titus in Emperor, which happened the 8 September 79 AD
In the solidified ash they were found cavities; these, filled with plaster castings or other material, then formed the casts of the victims of the eruption.
Pompeii after the eruption
Some Byzantine exhibits testify to the existence of a small settlement in the Middle Ages; in this period the inhabitants were concentrated in locations Civita Giuliana, north of the ancient city and in a higher position, given the presence of swamps and high humidity in the southern part near the Sarno River source of disease and death.
Subsequently, the Sarno was diverted by the Prince of Scafati, and what caused the death of almost all the inhabitants of the valley of Pompeii.
The Bourbons then realized some water projects and the mouth of the river was entirely hardened and bounded by stone embankments.
In the early nineteenth century it was built the Church of Giuliana, now abandoned.
The modern Pompeii was founded after the construction of the Shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii.
The sanctuary was consecrated in 1891.
absolutely outstanding character was Bartolo Longo, beatified on October 26 1980 by Pope John Paul II.
For his will was erected the Shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii, now Pontifical Basilica, full of votive offerings, which are among the most popular Italian destinations "for grace received", in it is preserved seventeenth-century painting of the school of Luca Giordano depicting the Madonna of Pompeii.
An intense pilgrimage occurs during the two pleas to Our Lady of the 8 May and the first Sunday in October.
We owe him two more works to the benefit of needy persons, two facilities for the reception of sons and daughters of incarcerated people.
Had strong international prominence recording audio and video, which took place between the 4 and 7 1971 October, the Pink Floyd concert, published in 1972 as Pink Floyd in Pompeii.
The concert was held in the absence of the public, in the presence of only technical staff, and this still remains a memorable passage in rock history, whether to run in an empty space, both for audio-visual effects used.
By decree signed on January 9 2004 by the then President of the Republic Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, Pompei was elevated to town status.
In the archaeological excavations has been brought to light the ancient Roman city submerged by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79.
The sudden rain of ash, dust and lava crystallized the city and its tragedy, preserving them for ever.
Pompeii World Heritage Site
In 1997 Pompeii UNESCO declared "World Heritage".
The Committee has decided to promote the area whereas the extraordinary finds from the ancient city of Pompeii, Herculaneum and neighboring cities buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79, are the only evidence of a social structure kept intact for two millennia.
The Italian text is taken from:
Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia